What is it?
Jul 22, 1862- Lincoln tells his cabinet about Emancipation Proclamation
"President Abraham Lincoln informs his chief advisors and cabinet that he will issue a proclamation to free slaves, but adds that he will wait until the Union Army has achieved a substantial military victory to make the announcement.
Attempting to stitch together a nation mired in a bloody civil war, Abraham Lincoln made a last-ditch, but carefully calculated, executive decision regarding the institution of slavery in America. At the time of the meeting with his cabinet, things were not looking good for the Union. The Confederate Army had overcome Union troops in significant battles and Britain and France were set to officially recognize the Confederacy as a separate nation.The issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation had less to do with ending slavery than saving the crumbling union. In an August 1862 letter to New York Tribune editor Horace Greeley, Lincoln confessed “my paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and it is not either to save or to destroy slavery.” He hoped a strong statement declaring a national policy of emancipation would stimulate a rush of the South’s slaves into the ranks of the Union Army, thus depleting the Confederacy’s labor force, on which it depended to wage war against the North.
As promised, Lincoln waited to unveil the proclamation until he could do so on the heels of a successful Union military advance. On September 22, 1862, after a victory at Antietam, he publicly announced a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, declaring all slaves free in the rebellious states as of January 1, 1863. Lincoln and his advisors limited the proclamation’s language to slavery in states outside of federal control as of 1862. The proclamation did not, however, address the contentious issue of slavery within the nation’s border states. In his attempt to appease all parties, Lincoln left many loopholes open that civil rights advocates would be forced to tackle in the future.”
This week in history:
- June 21st 356 BC- Herostratus sets fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
- June 22nd 1775- George Washington takes command of US troops.
- June 23rd 1942 - Hitler’s Directive #45: order to occupy Stalingrad.
- June 24th 1847- Brigham Young & his Mormon followers arrive at Salt Lake City, UT.
- June 25th 1603 - James VI of Scotland is crowned James I of English uniting kingdoms of England and Scotland
This dashing photograph of our 16th president can be seen at the Longmont Museum & Cultural Center.
July 15 1893 - Commodore Perry arrives in Japan.
“At age 60, Matthew Perry had a long and distinguished naval career. He knew that the mission to Japan would be his most significant accomplishment. He brought a letter from the President of the United States, Millard Fillmore, to the Emperor of Japan. He waited with his armed ships and refused to see any of the lesser dignitaries sent by the Japanese, insisting on dealing only with the highest emissaries of the Emperor.
The Japanese government realized that their country was in no position to defend itself against a foreign power, and Japan could not retain its isolation policy without risking war. On March 31, 1854, after weeks of long and tiresome talks, Perry received what he had so dearly worked for—a treaty with Japan. The treaty provided for:
- Peace and friendship between the United States and Japan.
- Opening of two ports to American ships at Shimoda and Hakodate
- Help for any American ships wrecked on the Japanese coast and protection for shipwrecked persons
- Permission for American ships to buy supplies, coal, water, and other necessary provisions in Japanese ports.”
This week in history:
- July 14th 1789 - Bastille Day-French Revolution begins with the fall of Bastille.
- July 15th 1799 - The Rosetta Stone is found in the Egyptian village of Rosetta by French Captain Pierre-François Bouchard during Napoleon’s Egyptian Campaign.
- July 16th 1054 - Three Roman legates fracture relations between Western and Eastern Christian churches by placing invalid Papal Bull of Excommunication on altar of Hagia Sophia during Saturday afternoon divine liturgy. Often dated as start of the East-West Schism.
- July 17th 1762 - Catherine II (Catherine the Great) becomes Tsarina of Russia upon the murder of Peter III
- July 18th 1925 - Hitler publishes Mein Kampf
A cabinet card depicting an image of Commodore Matthew C. Perry. This picture can be seen at the Newport Historical Society.
What is it?
July 8th 1919 - President Woodrow Wilson returns to New York City from the Versailles Peace Conference in France.
“Viewing Germany as the chief instigator of the conflict, the European Allied Powers decided to impose particularly stringent treaty obligations upon the defeated Germany. The Treaty of Versailles, presented for German leaders to sign on May 7, 1919, forced Germany to concede territories to Belgium (Eupen-Malmédy), Czechoslovakia (the Hultschin district), and Poland (Poznan [German: Posen], West Prussia and Upper Silesia). The Germans returned Alsace and Lorraine, annexed in 1871 after the Franco-Prussian War, to France. All German overseas colonies became League of Nation Mandates, and the city of Danzig (today: Gdansk), with its large ethnically German population, became a Free City. The treaty demanded demilitarization and occupation of the Rhineland, and special status for the Saarland under French control. Plebiscites were to determine the future of areas in northern Schleswig on the Danish-German frontier and parts of Upper Silesia on the border with Poland.
Perhaps the most humiliating portion of the treaty for defeated Germany was Article 231, commonly known as the “War Guilt Clause,” which forced the German nation to accept complete responsibility for initiating World War I. As such Germany was liable for all material damages, and France’s premier Georges Clemenceau particularly insisted on imposing enormous reparation payments. Aware that Germany would probably not be able to pay such a towering debt, Clemenceau and the French nevertheless greatly feared rapid German recovery and the initiation of a new war against France. Hence, the French sought in the postwar treaty to limit Germany’s potential to regain its economic superiority and to rearm. The German army was to be limited to 100,000 men, and conscription proscribed; the treaty restricted the Navy to vessels under 100,000 tons, with a ban on the acquisition or maintenance of a submarine fleet.Moreover, Germany was forbidden to maintain an air force.”
This week in history:
- July 7th 1550 - Traditional date Chocolate thought to have been introduced to Europe.
- July 8th 1947 - Reports are broadcast that a UFO has crashed landed in Roswell, New Mexico.
- July 9th 1893 - Daniel Williams performs 1st successful open heart surgery without anesthesia
- July 10th 1040 - Lady Godiva rides naked on horseback, according to legend, to force her husband, the Earl of Mercia, to lower taxes
- July 11th 1804 - Vice President of the United States Aaron Burr mortally wounds former Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in a duel.
The above image is a souvenir card with color photo of President Woodrow Wilson issued by Frank Cordts Furniture Co., Hoboken, ca. 1918-1919. This photograph can be seen at the Hoboken Historical Museum.